Many years ago, the discussion around ISUS was centered on how to devise a "crucial experiment," the results of which could only be explained by Larson's new system of theory, thereby "converting" many legacy scientists to the new way of thinking about the physical universe.

Sadly, nothing ever came of it. However, with the LRC's RST-based theory (RSt), which has taken us down a different path of theoretical development, compared to Larson's RSt, it now may be possible to devise the coveted experiment. The reason for the new optimism is the fact that we now have an RSt model of the observed elementary particles and of the atomic spectra groups, as well as a new understanding of the periodic table of the elements, together with a new mathematical approach to quantify it all.

All this brings with it a much simplified model of the atom, as a combination of space and time scalar motions, wherein we can explore physical phenomena, as relations between motion combinations. A good place to start might be with particle interactions. Right now the LST community is spending beaucoup bucks studying neutrinos and cosmic rays and dark matter.

One of the investigations is a search for "sterile" neutrinos, meaning inert neutrinos that haven't been detected. The reason they are thinking that they might exist, though, is due to what they see as a lack of symmetry in the interactions of particle physics. They love symmetry almost as much as we do, because of its links to laws of conservation.

In this case, the lack of symmetry is found in the fact that positive and negative beta decay happens with the production of right-chiral positrons and left-chiral electrons, respectively, along with their associated neutrinos, but not vice-versa. No such decay takes place that produces right-chiral electrons or left-chiral positrons. These four particles can be seen clearly in our model, which was originally based on the LST's Bilson-Thompson braid model, and we've followed it ever since, deriving the natural units of motion (num), for each particle, as shown in the table of the following graphic:

However, it's not that easy to see in the LST language. Several mistakes have been made in various presentations of the topic that tend to confuse people. For instance, here is one presentation with great animations, but they got the charge signs wrong on the positrons:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mXW1zPlxEE&t=309s

So, left-chiral neutrinos are produced with right-chiral positrons, in positive beta decay, and right-chiral anti-neutrinos are produced with left-chiral electrons, in negative beta decay, and all of this has to do with quantum spin, the nature of which the LST has no clue, while we can explain it easily.

I'll have more to say about this, of course, but I also want to reference the MiniBoone investigation mentioned in the above video, where they want to find sterile neutrinos to help explain how their heavier muon neutrinos quickly transform into lighter electron neutrinos, if indeed they do so.

Here is a new slide presentation on several experiments along this line:

https://theory.fnal.gov/wp-content/uplo ... eminar.pdf

It's very technical and obtuse for non-specialists, but it conveys a sense of the lengths they're willing to go to, in order to explain the observed anomalies, including the consideration of extra dimensions!

Given our much simpler system of theory, we would immediately conclude that there can be no other neutrinos, since the neutrinos (in each family, of course) are the neutral, or foundational, particles of the material and cosmic sectors of our theoretical universe. That is the reason they occupy the center position in the graph, between the three s/t (velocity) and the three t/s (energy) particles. They are neutral, or balanced entities, we might say, just as unit progression (s/t (t/s) = 1/1) is unit speed (energy), in the triality of the RST. The LST's lack of recognition of this fact, blinds them to the true nature of the particles and the beauty of their inherent symmetry.

It turns out, though, that the Bilson-Thompson braid model, which we have based our particle schematic upon for years now, because it is well-known and accepted by the LST community, doesn't follow the reciprocity of the LRC's RSt, as it has developed over the intervening years. We've ignored this annoying fact, as we have gone along, because we could still use it to great advantage and we didn't want to run the risk of violating some well-known, but obscure, physical principle.

However, in the study of the neutrinos and in the context of the search for a "crucial" experiment, the need to rectify this situation has become apparent. Therefore, the following graphic shows the theoretically correct, or at least a more consistent way to order the particles in our theory:

In the above graphic, the color of the vertices has been changed to black and white, in order to convey the reciprocal nature of the two sets of particles more clearly. The chirality is obvious, given the left and right side of the middle position of the two neutrinos. The colors of the less than 'c' speed S|T units is red, while it is blue for the greater than 'c' speed T|S units, for the material sector particles. Of course, this color scheme is reversed for the cosmic sector set of particles. It's easy to see that the cosmic sector set is just the material sector set, rotated horizontally around the neutrino.

This makes the cosmic sector neutrino (with the white vertices) the anti-neutrino, and no other possibility exists. In other words, the anti-neutrino is the reciprocal of the neutrino, which is why its spin is also opposite. The chirality of the neutrinos can't exist in this model, any more than it exists for two, opposite, sides of a coin, but more on this later.

What this new, reciprocal, arrangement of the particles gives us is the ability to investigate the particle interactions in a more straightforward manner. In fact, in the next post, we'll see how to do a version of Feynman diagrams, in terms of the interacting particles' num value.

## The Search for a Crucial Experiment

**Moderator:** dbundy

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

One of the things that the development of our RST-based theory (our RSt) brings to the table, if nothing else, is a clarification of the particle physics picture; that is, it simplifies the LST's extremely complicated and even convoluted system of particle classification. It starts with space and time oscillations (S & T units), which combine to form photons (S|T units), which combine to form quarks and leptons.

There are three families of these quarks and leptons, based on the square roots of 1, 2 and 3:

First family (√1):

Second family (√2):

Third family (√3):

Combinations of quarks are called hadrons. There are two types of hadrons, baryons (heavy) and mesons (light). Baryon type hadrons are combinations of three quarks, and meson hadrons are a combination of two quarks. Since our theory is based on nothing but motion (where motion consists of ratios of changing space and time), the nature of these entities and their properties is no longer a mystery. They are all motions, combinations of motions or relations between them.

Of course, many of the possible combinations of these units of motion, are not stable, but spontaneously disintegrate, or decay, into various other combinations, but thanks to the laws of conservation (symmetry), the lineage of a given particle at a given time, can be determined by the experimenters.

These laws require that mass, energy, charge, spin, etc, be conserved, as the decay process continues, enabling researchers to classify the particles accordingly. Richard Feynman devised a way to create diagrams of the conclusions of the researchers, which are called Feynman diagrams. They are very useful to the LST community, but we need to adapt them to our RST-based research, which is carried out in terms of units of motion, which has no analog in the LST.

To begin, we can easily diagram the most basic decays, which are the beta decays, as well as the reverse of these, or the absorption processes:

Instead of using a basis of conservation of charge in these diagrams, we use the conservation of natural units of motion (num), but since a particle's num value can be either below or above the num value of its family's neutrino, or anti-neutrino, those values below the neutrino num (s/t < c) are enclosed in parenthesis. In the material sector, these "lower" values are on the left (m-velocity side) of the neutrino, while in the cosmic sector, they are on the right (c-velocity side) of the anti-neutrino.

This can be confusing, unless we remember that, like the rational number line, values to the left of unity (1/1), are

However, when the line of motion combinations is rotated 180 degrees around the neutrino, giving us the back-side of the particles, or their anti-particle side, the two "directions" are also reversed, so that the "lower" values now appear on the right side of the anti-neutrino, and the "higher" values are on the left side. Therefore, the parentheses, indicating the "lower" (t/s < c) values, enclose them.

In the case of the neutrinos, their num values are neither "higher" or "lower" relative to themselves, of course, but they are opposite relative to one another (s/t = t/s = 1/1). The values are reciprocal and non-zero, therefore we will

The num value of a given particle is calculated from its num equation:

P = u + u + d = 16 + 16 + (14) = 18

N = u + d + d = 16 + (14) + (14) = (12)

W- = 3(4/8+4/1+2/1) = 12/24+12/3+6/3 = 30|30 = (30)

W+ = 3(1/2+1/4+8/4) = 3/6+3/12+24/12 = 30|30 = 30

e- = 3(2/4+2/1+2/1) = 6/12+6/3+6/3 = 18|18 = (18)

p = 3(1/2+1/2+4/2) = 3/6+3/6+12/6 = 18|18 = 18

v* = 3(2/1+2/1+1/2) = 6/3+6/6+3/6 = 12|12 = (12)

v = 3(1/2+1/1+2/1) = 3/6+3/3+6/3 = 12|12 = 12

For the nucleons, the equations of their constituent quarks are not shown above, for simplicity, but they're straightforward enough.

To calculate the gain and loss of num in the diagrams, its necessary to recognize the num difference between the material sector and the cosmic sector. For the neutrinos, this difference is 12 - (12) = 24. For the electrons, it is 18-(18) = 36, and the others are in between these values.

For example, in negative beta decay, a down quark of the incoming neutron, at (12) num, emits a W- boson, at (30) num, making it an up quark, changing the nucleon to a proton, at 18 num [(12)-(30) = 18]. The decayed down quark was at black (14), the new up quark is at white 16 [(16-(14) = 30]. The W- boson (30) then decays into an electron, (18), and an anti-neutrino, (12) [(18) + (12) = (30)].

Another example is neutrino capture. Here, an incoming neutrino, 12, emits a W+ boson, 30, changing it into an electron, (18), [12-30 = (18)], while the W+ boson is absorbed by the neutron, changing it into a proton [30 + (12) = 18].

Using parentheses, instead of + and - signs, which are used to indicate electrical charges, takes a little getting use to, but it avoids confusion with the latter, and clearly shows that the natural units of motion of these particles are conserved in these well-known transformation processes of first family quarks and leptons.

Next time, we will go beyond first family quarks and leptons, as we add second family members to the mix.

There are three families of these quarks and leptons, based on the square roots of 1, 2 and 3:

First family (√1):

Second family (√2):

Third family (√3):

Combinations of quarks are called hadrons. There are two types of hadrons, baryons (heavy) and mesons (light). Baryon type hadrons are combinations of three quarks, and meson hadrons are a combination of two quarks. Since our theory is based on nothing but motion (where motion consists of ratios of changing space and time), the nature of these entities and their properties is no longer a mystery. They are all motions, combinations of motions or relations between them.

Of course, many of the possible combinations of these units of motion, are not stable, but spontaneously disintegrate, or decay, into various other combinations, but thanks to the laws of conservation (symmetry), the lineage of a given particle at a given time, can be determined by the experimenters.

These laws require that mass, energy, charge, spin, etc, be conserved, as the decay process continues, enabling researchers to classify the particles accordingly. Richard Feynman devised a way to create diagrams of the conclusions of the researchers, which are called Feynman diagrams. They are very useful to the LST community, but we need to adapt them to our RST-based research, which is carried out in terms of units of motion, which has no analog in the LST.

To begin, we can easily diagram the most basic decays, which are the beta decays, as well as the reverse of these, or the absorption processes:

Instead of using a basis of conservation of charge in these diagrams, we use the conservation of natural units of motion (num), but since a particle's num value can be either below or above the num value of its family's neutrino, or anti-neutrino, those values below the neutrino num (s/t < c) are enclosed in parenthesis. In the material sector, these "lower" values are on the left (m-velocity side) of the neutrino, while in the cosmic sector, they are on the right (c-velocity side) of the anti-neutrino.

This can be confusing, unless we remember that, like the rational number line, values to the left of unity (1/1), are

*regarded*as "lower" than those to the right of unity, by convention, even though, in reality, the two opposed sides are not lower or higher, but simply lie in two reciprocal "directions," relative to unity. The use of parenthesis is used in the financial world to indicate (debt) vs. credit, so we are following suit in that regard.However, when the line of motion combinations is rotated 180 degrees around the neutrino, giving us the back-side of the particles, or their anti-particle side, the two "directions" are also reversed, so that the "lower" values now appear on the right side of the anti-neutrino, and the "higher" values are on the left side. Therefore, the parentheses, indicating the "lower" (t/s < c) values, enclose them.

In the case of the neutrinos, their num values are neither "higher" or "lower" relative to themselves, of course, but they are opposite relative to one another (s/t = t/s = 1/1). The values are reciprocal and non-zero, therefore we will

*designate*the anti-neutrino as the lower value and enclose it in parentheses, accordingly.The num value of a given particle is calculated from its num equation:

P = u + u + d = 16 + 16 + (14) = 18

N = u + d + d = 16 + (14) + (14) = (12)

W- = 3(4/8+4/1+2/1) = 12/24+12/3+6/3 = 30|30 = (30)

W+ = 3(1/2+1/4+8/4) = 3/6+3/12+24/12 = 30|30 = 30

e- = 3(2/4+2/1+2/1) = 6/12+6/3+6/3 = 18|18 = (18)

p = 3(1/2+1/2+4/2) = 3/6+3/6+12/6 = 18|18 = 18

v* = 3(2/1+2/1+1/2) = 6/3+6/6+3/6 = 12|12 = (12)

v = 3(1/2+1/1+2/1) = 3/6+3/3+6/3 = 12|12 = 12

For the nucleons, the equations of their constituent quarks are not shown above, for simplicity, but they're straightforward enough.

To calculate the gain and loss of num in the diagrams, its necessary to recognize the num difference between the material sector and the cosmic sector. For the neutrinos, this difference is 12 - (12) = 24. For the electrons, it is 18-(18) = 36, and the others are in between these values.

For example, in negative beta decay, a down quark of the incoming neutron, at (12) num, emits a W- boson, at (30) num, making it an up quark, changing the nucleon to a proton, at 18 num [(12)-(30) = 18]. The decayed down quark was at black (14), the new up quark is at white 16 [(16-(14) = 30]. The W- boson (30) then decays into an electron, (18), and an anti-neutrino, (12) [(18) + (12) = (30)].

Another example is neutrino capture. Here, an incoming neutrino, 12, emits a W+ boson, 30, changing it into an electron, (18), [12-30 = (18)], while the W+ boson is absorbed by the neutron, changing it into a proton [30 + (12) = 18].

Using parentheses, instead of + and - signs, which are used to indicate electrical charges, takes a little getting use to, but it avoids confusion with the latter, and clearly shows that the natural units of motion of these particles are conserved in these well-known transformation processes of first family quarks and leptons.

Next time, we will go beyond first family quarks and leptons, as we add second family members to the mix.

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

As we have continued the development of the LRC's RSt, from space and time oscillations, (SUDRs and TUDRs or Ss & Ts), to combinations of these into S|T and T|S units, to combinations of these into quarks and leptons and their anti-particle counterparts, as three sets or families of particles, as already observed or implied by the experiments of the LST community, each with its unique quantity of space and time scalar motion, accounting for the exact "electrical charge" that allows the stable combinations of neutrons and protons to form atoms in combination with electrons, we have simply been astounded.

Moreover, these scalar motions, and their various combinations into elementary particles, anti-particles, nucleons and atoms, form the periodic table of elements, which, as we've discovered, exhibits the same characteristic of space and time reciprocity, which has been the basis of the theory's development from the outset, and that principle of reciprocity accounts for the phenomena of positive and negative beta decay, as well as much of the observed photon, electron and neutrino absorption/emission phenomena of the elements.

This is an impressive achievement, by any standard. However, it is based on the scalar motion of Larson's RST, which is not even a recognized form of motion in the LST community! Consequently, what the RST community needs is a crucial experiment, one that predicts something theoretically, that has not yet been observed physically. The LST-based theory found just such an experiment in the last century that has had a profound and lasting effect on the acceptance of its view of the world.

It was the prediction and subsequent discovery of the omega minus elementary particle, which was so impressive. The only other experiment that had an impact even close to it was the predicted discovery of Dirac's positively charged electron, dubbed the positron. The theoretical prediction of the omega minus particle was made simultaneously by two men, the most prominent of which was the late Murray Gell-Mann, and he dubbed his analysis method as the "Eight-fold way."

However, the eignt-fold way analysis is based on the mathematics of group theory, which is used to study rotations described in terms of the non-commutative operations of matrices. Unfortunately (or fortunately), the second fundamental postulate of Larson's RST assumes that the mathematics of the universe conforms to "ordinary, commutative mathematics," which seemingly would rule out the use of modern group theory mathematics.

The complexity of non-commutative mathematics, such as group theory, makes it very difficult for non-specialists to critique the methods and conclusions of the LST physicists, who employ it in their work, and thus much of it has to be accepted on the belief that they, the specialists, do understand it.

This all started back in the days of the fathers of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg, Dirac and Schrodinger, among others. The non-commutative mathematics was found in Werner Heisenberg's analysis of atomic spectra, which work lit up Paul Dirac like a light bulb, and eventually led to Erwin Schrodinger's wave equation, which was an equivalent approach to the non-commutative math of matrix multiplication that Heisenberg didn't recognize until he was informed of it later.

The key to it all, however, was the introduction of the concept of quantum spin, not to be confused with the spin of a toy top, or the spin of a ball, or the rotation of a planet. Quantum spin is a quantity of energy, measured in terms of the experimentally verified calculation of Max Planck, called Planck's constant, symbolized by the letter "h". It's not to be compared to the spin of objects for several reasons, not the least of which is that its cycle consists of 720 degrees of change, rather than 360 degrees, something that scientists are at a loss to explain to this day.

But whatever it is, it is a quantity that can be measured experimentally, and low and behold, the elementary particles of the LST's standard model of particle physics are classified accordingly, and that classification, interestingly enough, corresponds to the dimensions of the tetraktys! So, here we go again. The dimensions of the tetraktys and its properties, which have played such a key role in the development of the LRC's RSt, also appear in the classification of the LST's experimental study of the particle spin states of LST theory!

In the graphic above, I've mapped the LST's spin states for the different types of the standard model particles to the tetraktys, noting its dimensions in red. Of course, while the Higgs boson is shown at the apex of the tetraktys, the 0D slot, with spin 0, neither the Higgs field nor the Higgs boson are part of the LRC's version of the standard model.

Indeed, the LST's Higgs concept, employed to explain the origin of mass, represents the clearest contrast between our scalar motion based theory and the LST's vector motion based theory. It goes to the heart of the difference between the two systems: the definition of space and time.

In Larson's new system of theory, space is not a pre-existing container that can be filled with air or water or anything else. It is strictly an aspect of motion, with no significance apart from that. It is the reciprocal of time, in the equation of motion, and one cannot exist without the other. The best way to understand it is to recognize that space (time) cannot be measured without motion. The fact that objects occupy various positions in "space" that can be shown to satisfy the postulates of geometry, is simply the consequence of the history of past motion.

Those relative positions cannot be measured without repeating some version of the past motion, which placed them there. Consequently, the idea of a field, electrical or otherwise, as a grid of values, pervasive throughout "space,"is terribly misleading. A "force" field is even more misleading, given the definition of force.

Without going into the rationale and consequences of these assertions, at this time, it's clear to see that a crucial experiment that would predict a distinctive outcome eliminating one of these two conflicting approaches to the mass mystery, should be possible. One of the first tasks facing our side of the issue is to understand quantum spin first, and then to look for connections of it, and what the LST calls "isospin," to the observed values of mass. The reason for this approach is based on the fact that these quantities are intimately connected to dimensions, and they are conserved quantities that can be measured, like mass and energy.

Now, one of the interesting things about the spin states shown above is that they differ by Planck's energy constant, h bar, which is h divided by 2π; That is to say, the 720° cycle , or 4π cycle, of quantum spin, divided in half, has to do with the frequency of space/time (time/space) oscillation (i.e. E = hν). This is a difficult concept for the LST to handle, since a spinning oscillation would ordinarily complete each cycle in 360 degrees of rotation and oscillation, respectively, but the math of group theory enables them to cope with it, by modeling the motion as an object following the path of a möbius strip.

The same thing can be thought of as a compound rotation in which the axis of a spinning object is rotated 180 degrees for each 360 degrees of spin, thus requiring the axis to be rotated twice and the spin completed twice to return to the beginning of the cycle. The trouble is of course, this type of motion is not possible for point-like particles, and even if the particles were not point-like, but had some extent, then other constraints prevent the model's existence.

However, this cognitive dissonance is disregarded in the LST community, because quantum spin, whatever it is, can be calculated, measured and even exploited.

We also notice the reciprocal symmetry in these magnitudes, but the question is, do they really have anything at all to do with the dimensions of the tetraktys and thus the magnitudes of Larson's Cube (LC), or is the correspondence in the above graphic just a coincidence?

We'll see.

Moreover, these scalar motions, and their various combinations into elementary particles, anti-particles, nucleons and atoms, form the periodic table of elements, which, as we've discovered, exhibits the same characteristic of space and time reciprocity, which has been the basis of the theory's development from the outset, and that principle of reciprocity accounts for the phenomena of positive and negative beta decay, as well as much of the observed photon, electron and neutrino absorption/emission phenomena of the elements.

This is an impressive achievement, by any standard. However, it is based on the scalar motion of Larson's RST, which is not even a recognized form of motion in the LST community! Consequently, what the RST community needs is a crucial experiment, one that predicts something theoretically, that has not yet been observed physically. The LST-based theory found just such an experiment in the last century that has had a profound and lasting effect on the acceptance of its view of the world.

It was the prediction and subsequent discovery of the omega minus elementary particle, which was so impressive. The only other experiment that had an impact even close to it was the predicted discovery of Dirac's positively charged electron, dubbed the positron. The theoretical prediction of the omega minus particle was made simultaneously by two men, the most prominent of which was the late Murray Gell-Mann, and he dubbed his analysis method as the "Eight-fold way."

However, the eignt-fold way analysis is based on the mathematics of group theory, which is used to study rotations described in terms of the non-commutative operations of matrices. Unfortunately (or fortunately), the second fundamental postulate of Larson's RST assumes that the mathematics of the universe conforms to "ordinary, commutative mathematics," which seemingly would rule out the use of modern group theory mathematics.

The complexity of non-commutative mathematics, such as group theory, makes it very difficult for non-specialists to critique the methods and conclusions of the LST physicists, who employ it in their work, and thus much of it has to be accepted on the belief that they, the specialists, do understand it.

This all started back in the days of the fathers of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg, Dirac and Schrodinger, among others. The non-commutative mathematics was found in Werner Heisenberg's analysis of atomic spectra, which work lit up Paul Dirac like a light bulb, and eventually led to Erwin Schrodinger's wave equation, which was an equivalent approach to the non-commutative math of matrix multiplication that Heisenberg didn't recognize until he was informed of it later.

The key to it all, however, was the introduction of the concept of quantum spin, not to be confused with the spin of a toy top, or the spin of a ball, or the rotation of a planet. Quantum spin is a quantity of energy, measured in terms of the experimentally verified calculation of Max Planck, called Planck's constant, symbolized by the letter "h". It's not to be compared to the spin of objects for several reasons, not the least of which is that its cycle consists of 720 degrees of change, rather than 360 degrees, something that scientists are at a loss to explain to this day.

But whatever it is, it is a quantity that can be measured experimentally, and low and behold, the elementary particles of the LST's standard model of particle physics are classified accordingly, and that classification, interestingly enough, corresponds to the dimensions of the tetraktys! So, here we go again. The dimensions of the tetraktys and its properties, which have played such a key role in the development of the LRC's RSt, also appear in the classification of the LST's experimental study of the particle spin states of LST theory!

In the graphic above, I've mapped the LST's spin states for the different types of the standard model particles to the tetraktys, noting its dimensions in red. Of course, while the Higgs boson is shown at the apex of the tetraktys, the 0D slot, with spin 0, neither the Higgs field nor the Higgs boson are part of the LRC's version of the standard model.

Indeed, the LST's Higgs concept, employed to explain the origin of mass, represents the clearest contrast between our scalar motion based theory and the LST's vector motion based theory. It goes to the heart of the difference between the two systems: the definition of space and time.

In Larson's new system of theory, space is not a pre-existing container that can be filled with air or water or anything else. It is strictly an aspect of motion, with no significance apart from that. It is the reciprocal of time, in the equation of motion, and one cannot exist without the other. The best way to understand it is to recognize that space (time) cannot be measured without motion. The fact that objects occupy various positions in "space" that can be shown to satisfy the postulates of geometry, is simply the consequence of the history of past motion.

Those relative positions cannot be measured without repeating some version of the past motion, which placed them there. Consequently, the idea of a field, electrical or otherwise, as a grid of values, pervasive throughout "space,"is terribly misleading. A "force" field is even more misleading, given the definition of force.

Without going into the rationale and consequences of these assertions, at this time, it's clear to see that a crucial experiment that would predict a distinctive outcome eliminating one of these two conflicting approaches to the mass mystery, should be possible. One of the first tasks facing our side of the issue is to understand quantum spin first, and then to look for connections of it, and what the LST calls "isospin," to the observed values of mass. The reason for this approach is based on the fact that these quantities are intimately connected to dimensions, and they are conserved quantities that can be measured, like mass and energy.

Now, one of the interesting things about the spin states shown above is that they differ by Planck's energy constant, h bar, which is h divided by 2π; That is to say, the 720° cycle , or 4π cycle, of quantum spin, divided in half, has to do with the frequency of space/time (time/space) oscillation (i.e. E = hν). This is a difficult concept for the LST to handle, since a spinning oscillation would ordinarily complete each cycle in 360 degrees of rotation and oscillation, respectively, but the math of group theory enables them to cope with it, by modeling the motion as an object following the path of a möbius strip.

The same thing can be thought of as a compound rotation in which the axis of a spinning object is rotated 180 degrees for each 360 degrees of spin, thus requiring the axis to be rotated twice and the spin completed twice to return to the beginning of the cycle. The trouble is of course, this type of motion is not possible for point-like particles, and even if the particles were not point-like, but had some extent, then other constraints prevent the model's existence.

However, this cognitive dissonance is disregarded in the LST community, because quantum spin, whatever it is, can be calculated, measured and even exploited.

We also notice the reciprocal symmetry in these magnitudes, but the question is, do they really have anything at all to do with the dimensions of the tetraktys and thus the magnitudes of Larson's Cube (LC), or is the correspondence in the above graphic just a coincidence?

We'll see.

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

The amazing thing about our insight into the dimensions and "directions" of the tetraktys is that it corresponds to the geometry and magnitudes of Larson's Cube (LC). When we added the reciprocity of the "Bott clock" and discovered that it reflected the reciprocity of the spectral groups of the atomic spectra and the periodic table of elements, it was something that, as far as I know, hasn't been recognized before. It was definitely a big step forward.

Now we see a connection, in the post above, between the dimensions of the tetraktys and the quantum spin states of elementary particles. I'm not sure what to make of it all yet, because it includes a particle (Higgs) that can never have a place in our particle model, but then we have two entities (SUDR or S unit and TUDR or T unit) that have no place in the LST theory either.

Not only do these quantum spin states conform to the tetraktys, indicating they may have something to do with dimensions, but, as it turns out, the spin 3/2 baryons do too. Recall that these baryons (hadrons consisting of three quarks) are the particles that the "eight-fold way" organizes into a "decuplet," based on two quantum properties that the LST calls "isospin" and "strangeness," which led to the prediction and discovery of the omega particle.

In the graphic above, we see the 10 particles of the baryon decuplet plotted with "strangeness," S (i.e., the number of strange quarks included in the triplet of quarks that defines a baryon), shown as increasing from top to bottom on the left in blue text, and isospin shown increasing to both the left and the right, from the middle at the top in red text. Quantum isospin is strictly a three-dimensional mathematical construct that has nothing to do with quantum spin or even any sort of real spatial dimensions.

Nevertheless, if we invert the above image, placing the four delta particles on the bottom and the omega particle at the top, we see that it conforms to the diagram of the tetraktys (Note: the negative S values are just an accidental historical convention. They could just as well be positive, which would invert the decuplet):

Now, not only does the decuplet have particles at each point of the tetraktys, but the number of quark combinations that are allowed by the so-called color charges of QCD, conform exactly to the numbers of Pascal's triangle, which, as we have shown previously, are just the coefficients of the dimensional components of the tetraktys and the LC!

Another version of the decuplet shows the isospin, I, values for each level of the diagram along the left side, decreasing from top to bottom:

Here, we see that the I of the delta particles, as a group, is 3/2, the I of the sigma particles is 1, while for the Xi particles it is 1/2 and for the omega it is 0. I don't know if this is a mistake or not, but these are the values of quantum spin that are used to calculate the spin states shown in the graphic of the previous post, generating the number of spin states for each type of particle (i.e. Higgs (spin 0) = 1, fermions Spin 1/2) = 2, bosons (spin 1) = 3 and hadrons (spin 3/2) = 4), with the number of states for each type given by multiplying the quantum spin by 2 and adding 1.

As mentioned, this seems to be an error, because quantum spin (J) is not the same as isospin (I), in the literature, and I've never seen it diagrammed this way before. However, when we take into account the possible combinations of "color charge," we get numbers that match the coefficients of Pascal's triangle:

As shown above, the number of possible combinations of the three colors results in the numbers of Pascal's triangle, 1, 11, 121, 1331, which are the coefficients of the dimensions of the tetraktys; That is to say, they correspond to the geometry of the LC, which is the 2x2x2 stack of 1 unit cubes, which, at the 3D level, contains

When we realize that our version of the so-called color charge consists of three sets of radii, (√1, √2, √3), (√2, √4, √6), (√3, √6, √9) and that one member of each set is an integer value of a unique dimension (1d = √1, 2d = √4, 3d = √9), corresponding to different magnitudes of space and time oscillations, the intrigue mounts tremendously.

Now we see a connection, in the post above, between the dimensions of the tetraktys and the quantum spin states of elementary particles. I'm not sure what to make of it all yet, because it includes a particle (Higgs) that can never have a place in our particle model, but then we have two entities (SUDR or S unit and TUDR or T unit) that have no place in the LST theory either.

Not only do these quantum spin states conform to the tetraktys, indicating they may have something to do with dimensions, but, as it turns out, the spin 3/2 baryons do too. Recall that these baryons (hadrons consisting of three quarks) are the particles that the "eight-fold way" organizes into a "decuplet," based on two quantum properties that the LST calls "isospin" and "strangeness," which led to the prediction and discovery of the omega particle.

In the graphic above, we see the 10 particles of the baryon decuplet plotted with "strangeness," S (i.e., the number of strange quarks included in the triplet of quarks that defines a baryon), shown as increasing from top to bottom on the left in blue text, and isospin shown increasing to both the left and the right, from the middle at the top in red text. Quantum isospin is strictly a three-dimensional mathematical construct that has nothing to do with quantum spin or even any sort of real spatial dimensions.

Nevertheless, if we invert the above image, placing the four delta particles on the bottom and the omega particle at the top, we see that it conforms to the diagram of the tetraktys (Note: the negative S values are just an accidental historical convention. They could just as well be positive, which would invert the decuplet):

Now, not only does the decuplet have particles at each point of the tetraktys, but the number of quark combinations that are allowed by the so-called color charges of QCD, conform exactly to the numbers of Pascal's triangle, which, as we have shown previously, are just the coefficients of the dimensional components of the tetraktys and the LC!

Another version of the decuplet shows the isospin, I, values for each level of the diagram along the left side, decreasing from top to bottom:

Here, we see that the I of the delta particles, as a group, is 3/2, the I of the sigma particles is 1, while for the Xi particles it is 1/2 and for the omega it is 0. I don't know if this is a mistake or not, but these are the values of quantum spin that are used to calculate the spin states shown in the graphic of the previous post, generating the number of spin states for each type of particle (i.e. Higgs (spin 0) = 1, fermions Spin 1/2) = 2, bosons (spin 1) = 3 and hadrons (spin 3/2) = 4), with the number of states for each type given by multiplying the quantum spin by 2 and adding 1.

As mentioned, this seems to be an error, because quantum spin (J) is not the same as isospin (I), in the literature, and I've never seen it diagrammed this way before. However, when we take into account the possible combinations of "color charge," we get numbers that match the coefficients of Pascal's triangle:

As shown above, the number of possible combinations of the three colors results in the numbers of Pascal's triangle, 1, 11, 121, 1331, which are the coefficients of the dimensions of the tetraktys; That is to say, they correspond to the geometry of the LC, which is the 2x2x2 stack of 1 unit cubes, which, at the 3D level, contains

**1**0D point,**3**1D lines,**3**2D planes and**1**3D cube.When we realize that our version of the so-called color charge consists of three sets of radii, (√1, √2, √3), (√2, √4, √6), (√3, √6, √9) and that one member of each set is an integer value of a unique dimension (1d = √1, 2d = √4, 3d = √9), corresponding to different magnitudes of space and time oscillations, the intrigue mounts tremendously.

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

Wow, another amazing discovery pops out of our RST-based theory: The so-called "color-charges" of the three-dimensional (SU(3)) theory of the LST's quantum chromodynamics (QCD) turn out to fit the dimensions and directions of the tetraktys (and the LC), like a glove (see previous post above.)

What this implies, among other things, is that the differences between the three "colors" of quarks (red, blue and green) have a dimensional character (and thus reciprocal character) that conforms to the dimensions and "directions" of the tetraktys (and thus the LC.) I explained how this is the case more than a year ago (see here), but had no idea then that it was related to the tetraktys and the LC.

Now, with this new discovery, we can understand the 3d "color" changes, in the so-called "strong force interactions," of QCD, as 3d dimensional interactions in actuality; That is to say, what in the LST's QCD is a dimensionless "color charge," is a combination of scalar motions in three dimensions, in our RSt.

How these interactions take place is also different, but I will defer that topic until later. For now, we have to understand how the scalar motions are combined, dimension by dimension. To do this, we have to drill down into our schematic representation of the quarks and show each dimension's relative balance of S and T units. Accordingly, we will label each of the three legs in our triangle fermions with x, y and z to represent the three axes. Then we will place the numerical values of their Ss and Ts in their proper positions and add Ss to Ss and Ts to Ts, to get the net balance, as shown below:

First, we combine the first up quark with a down quark, giving us a net balance in each of the x, y and z dimensions. Note that the labels are colored to show the relative balance in a given dimension: Red for more Ss than Ts, blue for more Ts than Ss and green for equal numbers of both.

Next, we add a second up quark to the up and down combo:

Notice that the net result is an imbalance of one positive unit in x, two in y and none in the z dimension of the udu combo, the proton. The total is therefore three positive units, constituting the positive charge of the proton.

What this implies, among other things, is that the differences between the three "colors" of quarks (red, blue and green) have a dimensional character (and thus reciprocal character) that conforms to the dimensions and "directions" of the tetraktys (and thus the LC.) I explained how this is the case more than a year ago (see here), but had no idea then that it was related to the tetraktys and the LC.

Now, with this new discovery, we can understand the 3d "color" changes, in the so-called "strong force interactions," of QCD, as 3d dimensional interactions in actuality; That is to say, what in the LST's QCD is a dimensionless "color charge," is a combination of scalar motions in three dimensions, in our RSt.

How these interactions take place is also different, but I will defer that topic until later. For now, we have to understand how the scalar motions are combined, dimension by dimension. To do this, we have to drill down into our schematic representation of the quarks and show each dimension's relative balance of S and T units. Accordingly, we will label each of the three legs in our triangle fermions with x, y and z to represent the three axes. Then we will place the numerical values of their Ss and Ts in their proper positions and add Ss to Ss and Ts to Ts, to get the net balance, as shown below:

First, we combine the first up quark with a down quark, giving us a net balance in each of the x, y and z dimensions. Note that the labels are colored to show the relative balance in a given dimension: Red for more Ss than Ts, blue for more Ts than Ss and green for equal numbers of both.

Next, we add a second up quark to the up and down combo:

Notice that the net result is an imbalance of one positive unit in x, two in y and none in the z dimension of the udu combo, the proton. The total is therefore three positive units, constituting the positive charge of the proton.

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

Given that we have discovered that what the LST calls Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) actually relates to the tetraktys and the LC (see previous posts above), and we surmise that the reason is the "colors" of QCD actually are manifestations of the dimensional character of the dynamics, we are off and running to the races.

Not that it will be easy to untangle the knots of logic constituting the relationship between combinations of scalar motion, as described by those with no knowledge of those combinations or the principles upon which they are formed. It won't be easy, but, with the success we've enjoyed to this point, we can be optimistic that the picture will become clear soon enough.

In essence, what QCD deals with is three-dimensional ("color" charge), while what quantum flavor dynamics (QFD) deals with is two-dimensional (bosonic charge), and what quantum electro-dynamics (QED) deals with is one-dimensional (electrical charge). In terms of the non-commutative mathematics of the matrices and group theory, these three sets of dynamics are understood as SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) mathematics, which is to say, 3D x 2D x 1D mathematics.

Of course, our system of scalar motion theory is a radical departure from the legacy system of theory (LST), and the mathematics are completely different as well. Our mathematics makes a distinction between magnitudes, dimensions and "directions" based on the tetraktys and the scalar nature of the Larson's Cube (LC). So, the dynamics of our theory corresponds to the 2

Now, what we find in QCD is that baryons (having three components) were incompatible with the Pauli exclusion principle, which requires any two quantum states to be distinguished by a unique number. For the LST theory, the quantum concept of atomic orbitals only required a property with two possible values (spin up and spin down), but the quantum concept of the atomic nucleus required a property with three possible values, so the concept of a property that could take on three values was developed

This concept was developed on the basis of an unknown property that acts like color, even though it is not color. It's a value with three components that can balance in a sense so that they cancel out the effect of each other. Now, we have discovered that the property of dimension and "direction" could be that property, because it act just like the "color" property acts.

The way they use "color" charges in their theory requires the colors to be continually exchanged between the three spin components of the nucleus. One way to understand this, is to imagine the three axes of a coordinate system, where the positive half of each axis is red or green or blue and the negative half is the anti-color of that color. Then, to see all the possible changes, imagine that one color of line exchanges with another color or vice versa. This gives us six possible changes (r-g, g-r, r-b, b-r, g-b, b-g). With their matrix mathematics, there are actually nine possibilities (3

So, what they end up with is eight possible changes, which is, of course, just what we would expect in 3D, with two "directions" in each of three dimensions (2

Consequently, it greatly behooves us to take a closer look at the quark dynamics in terms of the dimensions and "directions" of the LC. There is much to be said about it, of course, but from a high level perspective, we can see that in order to change all three colors of a given baryon simultaneously (which seems necessary for stability) each color combination has to change to its reciprocal along the four diagonals of the stack. Changing in both "directions" of the diagonal generates 2 x 4 = 8 possible changes for a given baryon:

+++ <------> ---

++- < ------> --+

-+- <-------> +-+

-++ <------> +--

This is interesting, because, again, not only do we see the fit to the empirical situation (eight changes required), but the fact that we have eight is due to the built in numbers and reciprocity of three dimensions in the stack!!! That's certainly easier to understand than the LST's non-commutative matrix and group theory mathematics!

Not that it will be easy to untangle the knots of logic constituting the relationship between combinations of scalar motion, as described by those with no knowledge of those combinations or the principles upon which they are formed. It won't be easy, but, with the success we've enjoyed to this point, we can be optimistic that the picture will become clear soon enough.

In essence, what QCD deals with is three-dimensional ("color" charge), while what quantum flavor dynamics (QFD) deals with is two-dimensional (bosonic charge), and what quantum electro-dynamics (QED) deals with is one-dimensional (electrical charge). In terms of the non-commutative mathematics of the matrices and group theory, these three sets of dynamics are understood as SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) mathematics, which is to say, 3D x 2D x 1D mathematics.

Of course, our system of scalar motion theory is a radical departure from the legacy system of theory (LST), and the mathematics are completely different as well. Our mathematics makes a distinction between magnitudes, dimensions and "directions" based on the tetraktys and the scalar nature of the Larson's Cube (LC). So, the dynamics of our theory corresponds to the 2

^{0}x 2^{1}x 2^{2}x 2^{3}levels of the tetraktys, which are the "directions" of the three dimensions (four counting 0), which map to the geometric magnitudes of the LC, which even have the coefficients of Pascal's triangle.Now, what we find in QCD is that baryons (having three components) were incompatible with the Pauli exclusion principle, which requires any two quantum states to be distinguished by a unique number. For the LST theory, the quantum concept of atomic orbitals only required a property with two possible values (spin up and spin down), but the quantum concept of the atomic nucleus required a property with three possible values, so the concept of a property that could take on three values was developed

*ad hoc*by the theorists, and it worked well for the experimentalists, even though they didn't, and still don't, have a clue as to what the true nature of the "color charge" property is.This concept was developed on the basis of an unknown property that acts like color, even though it is not color. It's a value with three components that can balance in a sense so that they cancel out the effect of each other. Now, we have discovered that the property of dimension and "direction" could be that property, because it act just like the "color" property acts.

The way they use "color" charges in their theory requires the colors to be continually exchanged between the three spin components of the nucleus. One way to understand this, is to imagine the three axes of a coordinate system, where the positive half of each axis is red or green or blue and the negative half is the anti-color of that color. Then, to see all the possible changes, imagine that one color of line exchanges with another color or vice versa. This gives us six possible changes (r-g, g-r, r-b, b-r, g-b, b-g). With their matrix mathematics, there are actually nine possibilities (3

^{2}= 9), but three are eliminated by the nature of the matrices.while two more can be added for rather obscure reasons (see John Baez explain it here)So, what they end up with is eight possible changes, which is, of course, just what we would expect in 3D, with two "directions" in each of three dimensions (2

^{3}= 8). Again, however, their 3D understanding comes from non-commutative matrix mathematics, while our's comes from the tetraktys, where three dimensions, each with two "directions," produces the geometry of the LC (stack of 2x2x2 = 8 cubes.)Consequently, it greatly behooves us to take a closer look at the quark dynamics in terms of the dimensions and "directions" of the LC. There is much to be said about it, of course, but from a high level perspective, we can see that in order to change all three colors of a given baryon simultaneously (which seems necessary for stability) each color combination has to change to its reciprocal along the four diagonals of the stack. Changing in both "directions" of the diagonal generates 2 x 4 = 8 possible changes for a given baryon:

+++ <------> ---

++- < ------> --+

-+- <-------> +-+

-++ <------> +--

This is interesting, because, again, not only do we see the fit to the empirical situation (eight changes required), but the fact that we have eight is due to the built in numbers and reciprocity of three dimensions in the stack!!! That's certainly easier to understand than the LST's non-commutative matrix and group theory mathematics!

### Re: The Search for a Crucial Experiment

The concept of force plays a very prominent role in the LST physical theories. It's an approach that has paid great dividends, in a system that seeks to understand nature in terms of the fewest interactions among the fewest number of particles on a stage of space and time. However, incredible as it might seem, as Larson pointed out, they have deluded themselves into thinking that force is not necessarily connected with motion, that it can exist autonomously. Hence, their standard model of physics is based on so-called fundamental forces. However, as Larson observed:

The LST community has done a really good job of getting around the consequences of this failure to recognize a most fundamental principle of their system of physics. They have invented

In our RST-based theory (RSt), on the other hand, we don't need to resort to autonomous forces to explain the composition of the atom. The various scalar motions simply combine in such a way that the fundamental scalar motion of the universe's progression of space and time forms the structure of the elementary atom. We've already seen this solve one of the unsolved mysteries of the LST: They can't understand how it is that the electron charge exactly cancels the proton charge, but that's because, again, they view charge as an autonomous force, not understanding that it is actually scalar motion (See here, but don't imagine a Nobel Prize for solving their mystery will be forth coming any time soon.)

In the study of the atomic nucleus, the same confusion reigns and, again, for the same reason: Their view of 3d charge as an autonomous force, called the "color force," hides the fact that, like the 1d electrical charge, the 3d color charge is simply the result of combinations of scalar motions.

We've already seen how the three dimensions of scalar motion can be seen to exhibit the same characteristics as three primary colors, where each dimension's contribution to the whole, like combining the colors red, green and blue into white, provides a conflict-free, consistent basis for their combination (see previous post above).

However, while assigning each of the constituent S|T (T|S) units of the quarks to one of three axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system explains why the three-color requirement of QCD works, it does even more for us, when we expand the three axes to the eight cubes of the 2x2x2 LC. Indeed, it explains the entire structure of the atom, not just the nucleus.

Recall that in our theory the electron does not exist apart from the atom, in a cloud or orbit around it, but is an integral part of the atom's scalar motion combinations. However, until now, we've never been able to show what that structure consists of, even mathematically. Now, though, we can show, in terms of natural units of scalar motion (num), how the quarks and electron fit together to form the elementary atom:

Continuing our investigation into the scalar motion combinations, we have followed the idea of the LST community that quarks come in three different configurations, and combinations of three of them have to have one of each configuration. They developed their quantum chromodynamics (QCD) based on this concept, but not understanding how it worked, concluded to make it analogous to combinations of the three primary colors, which produces the color white, when one of each color is included in the combo.

On the other hand, we have concluded that the reason this works is that the three different configurations of quarks are actually a space|time imbalance in three different dimensions, x, y and z, and that it turns out that the combo of three quarks requires that the space|time imbalance of the quarks is evenly distributed in the three dimensions.

This smacks of the local vs global symmetry of gauge theory, although I'm not sure I understand that, other than it is a really big deal, first proposed by Yang and Mills, in dealing with theoretical issues of group theory. A simplified version of what is involved can be seen in this video here.

The Yang-Mills gauge theory, if I understand correctly, is a solution to the masses of the electrically charged and uncharged bosons in the 2d group, SU(2), which are the three W and Z bosons, and that of the "color" charged bosons in the 3d group, SU(3), which are the eight gluons. It allows the LST community to account for massive bosons and what's called remormalizability at the same time (a concept that allows them to get around infinities or singularities in their theories that would otherwise be fatal flaws.)

In the next post, I'll show how a simple, local (or gauge) symmetry of scalar motion explains the observed atomic structure in our theory, without resorting to the autonomous forces of the LST.

...we need to recognize that force is not an autonomous entity; it is a property of motion. The motion of an individual mass unit is measured in terms of speed (or velocity). The total amount of motion in a material aggregate is then the product of the speed and the number of mass units, a quantity formerly called “quantity of motion,” but now known as momentum. The rate of change of the motion of the individual unit is acceleration; that of the total quantity of motion is force. The force is thus the total quantity of acceleration. (Basic Properties of Matter, Chapter 12)

The LST community has done a really good job of getting around the consequences of this failure to recognize a most fundamental principle of their system of physics. They have invented

*ad hoc*principles such as "virtual particles," "vacuum energy" and "space-time" to compensate for the missing motion upon which electrical, magnetic and gravitational forces can be concocted. For instance, in their system, charged particles exert a one-dimensional electromagnetic force upon each other via*uncharged*virtual photons, a two-dimensional force of interaction between protons and neutrons occurs via*charged*virtual bosons, and the quarks of the nucleons interact via*charged*virtual gluons, acting three-dimensionally. At least that's the theory, but truth be known, there are many mysteries remaining. (See Scientific American article "The Glue that Binds Us")In our RST-based theory (RSt), on the other hand, we don't need to resort to autonomous forces to explain the composition of the atom. The various scalar motions simply combine in such a way that the fundamental scalar motion of the universe's progression of space and time forms the structure of the elementary atom. We've already seen this solve one of the unsolved mysteries of the LST: They can't understand how it is that the electron charge exactly cancels the proton charge, but that's because, again, they view charge as an autonomous force, not understanding that it is actually scalar motion (See here, but don't imagine a Nobel Prize for solving their mystery will be forth coming any time soon.)

In the study of the atomic nucleus, the same confusion reigns and, again, for the same reason: Their view of 3d charge as an autonomous force, called the "color force," hides the fact that, like the 1d electrical charge, the 3d color charge is simply the result of combinations of scalar motions.

We've already seen how the three dimensions of scalar motion can be seen to exhibit the same characteristics as three primary colors, where each dimension's contribution to the whole, like combining the colors red, green and blue into white, provides a conflict-free, consistent basis for their combination (see previous post above).

However, while assigning each of the constituent S|T (T|S) units of the quarks to one of three axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system explains why the three-color requirement of QCD works, it does even more for us, when we expand the three axes to the eight cubes of the 2x2x2 LC. Indeed, it explains the entire structure of the atom, not just the nucleus.

Recall that in our theory the electron does not exist apart from the atom, in a cloud or orbit around it, but is an integral part of the atom's scalar motion combinations. However, until now, we've never been able to show what that structure consists of, even mathematically. Now, though, we can show, in terms of natural units of scalar motion (num), how the quarks and electron fit together to form the elementary atom:

Continuing our investigation into the scalar motion combinations, we have followed the idea of the LST community that quarks come in three different configurations, and combinations of three of them have to have one of each configuration. They developed their quantum chromodynamics (QCD) based on this concept, but not understanding how it worked, concluded to make it analogous to combinations of the three primary colors, which produces the color white, when one of each color is included in the combo.

On the other hand, we have concluded that the reason this works is that the three different configurations of quarks are actually a space|time imbalance in three different dimensions, x, y and z, and that it turns out that the combo of three quarks requires that the space|time imbalance of the quarks is evenly distributed in the three dimensions.

This smacks of the local vs global symmetry of gauge theory, although I'm not sure I understand that, other than it is a really big deal, first proposed by Yang and Mills, in dealing with theoretical issues of group theory. A simplified version of what is involved can be seen in this video here.

The Yang-Mills gauge theory, if I understand correctly, is a solution to the masses of the electrically charged and uncharged bosons in the 2d group, SU(2), which are the three W and Z bosons, and that of the "color" charged bosons in the 3d group, SU(3), which are the eight gluons. It allows the LST community to account for massive bosons and what's called remormalizability at the same time (a concept that allows them to get around infinities or singularities in their theories that would otherwise be fatal flaws.)

In the next post, I'll show how a simple, local (or gauge) symmetry of scalar motion explains the observed atomic structure in our theory, without resorting to the autonomous forces of the LST.