Rainer Huck handed me a paper by William Bertozzi, "Speed and Kinetic Energy of Relativistic Electrons," which has some surprising conclusions. He demonstrated that as the speed of an electron is increased to the speed of light, its speed diminished along the curve defined by Special Relativity, as though the mass of the electron was increasing to infinity. However, when sufficient energy was added to reach the speed of light, the electron was still able to absorb and retain more energy, even though its speed remained fixed at c. There did not seem to be an upper limit to this process, and the net, measured energy was in excess of the amount of energy needed to reach or exceed the speed of light.
This is a fairly old experiment, done in 1964, and was brought to the attention of Larson. According to Rainer, Larson said that the energy was just being added to a second, scalar dimension, one that was not being represented by the reference system, and that's where the energy was going. (The excess energy was being measured as heat on the impact of an aluminum plate.) Apparently, Larson had written a paper on it, but we have yet to locate it. I did locate an earlier paper regarding relativistic effects, which I scanned in and put on the Archive: Energies at High Speeds.
Gustave Le Bon discussed this speed reduction as well, and I posted my comments concerning his view in the Mass Relations topic. I began to wonder if a similar misidentification may be involved with the electron.
The experiment used a linear accelerator to accelerate static charges to the speed of light.
Observation #1: the structure under question is the charged electron, which in RS2, is a composite motion of a spatial rotation (the uncharged electron) and a LF (time biased) photon (Larson would have it as a HF photon, because he measures from unit frequency in the IR, and I measure from unit speed, in the uV; regardless, a space displaced electron requires the charge to be in time).
Observation #2: the uncharged electron moves at the speed of light, because it has 2 free dimensions for the progression of the natural reference system to carry it.
Observation #3: the charge, being a photon SHM, is a "direction reversal," namely it is an inward motion in space.
Observation #4: the photon is a birotation that occupies 2 scalar dimensions (Larson's photon is a single dimension). Both versions have a free dimension (or two) to be carried by the natural reference system.
Observation #5: the charged electron would be composed of the uncharged electron (1 dim) + photon (2 dims), leaving no free dimensions, so it would NOT be carried by the progression, and be "at rest", since the electron (outward +1) and photon "direction reversal" (inward -1) would have zero net motion. (Larson's charged electron would still have a free dimension that would carry it at the speed of light, which is not observed with static electricity).
Now consider the linear accelerator, which is claimed to accelerate the electron UP to the speed of light. In the RS, there is a problem with that, because you cannot add motions past unity (as demonstrated by heat... unit outward motion + unit outward motion = unit outward motion; it does not double, as 1x1=1). The electron motion is already at unit spatial speed, being a rotating unit of space, so the electron motion cannot be accelerated.
What appears to be going on is that the charge is being increased in magnitude. Consider--the electron wants to fly off at the speed of light, being carried by the progression. The retarding force is the charge. As the magnitude of the charge increases, being inversely related to the space displacement of the electron, it has less effect on slowing the electron down, so the electron speeds up. Larson documents this in his paper on Energy, as 1-1/n2, where 'n' would be the magnitude of the charge. A complete stop, a situation of "rest" would be where n=1. As n increases, it becomes less and less effective--but can continue to increase, regardless of the net speed of the electron. So you can continue to pump in all the energy you want, past the speed of light, and the charge on the electron will keep taking it in. Upon impact with the detector plate, the energy not used to neutralize the velocity will be simple, LF photons, in the visible or infrared range--heat--exactly what the experiment detected. The electron, losing its charge as thermal emission, will enter the metal as a tiny electric current.
In conclusion, Larson was essentially correct. The energy WAS being added to a 2nd, scalar dimension--the dimension of the charge--but what was not considered (or at least not mentioned to me, as the original paper has yet to be found), was that the velocity of the electron was the reduction by the "direction reversal" slowing it, allowing it to progress, not an increase in spatial speed.
Discussion of electricity, electronics, electrical components and theories of circuit operation.
1 post • Page 1 of 1
- Speed and Kinetic Energy of Relativistic Electrons (Bertozzi, William).pdf
- Speed and Kinetic Energy of Relativistic Electrons
- (174.95 KiB) Downloaded 1 time
Every dogma has its day...