## Longitudinal Waves

Discussion of electricity, electronics, electrical components and theories of circuit operation.
Horace
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### Longitudinal Waves

Do you think that Longitudinal E/M Waves really exist as described here ?:

BTW: I found this by searching for the word "counterspace"

bperet
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### Birotating Electron waves

Do you think that Longitudinal E/M Waves really exist as described here ?
Yes, of course. I assume you caught the quick comment that longitudinal waves move through the ground, not the air, as per his experiment sending a longitudinal radio signal from San Francisco to Los Angeles without an antenna. The waves are just out-of-phase by 90 degrees on the complex plane.

Examine how conventional radio works in the Reciprocal System: EM radiation, namely photons shot out in a pattern around an antenna (geometry dependent upon the antenna design). Where do the radio photons come from? The charge on a charged electron. (RS2 has the charged electron as a compound particle of an uncharged electron + photon, whereas Larson just has a self-sustaining rotational vibration). Electric current is run through a tank circuit (LC) to produce a resonance and induce a charge on the uncharged electrons from the capacitor half. The charged electrons move to the skin of the conductors and build up, until sufficient pressure discharges the photon from the charged electron into the environment, to return the electron to uncharged status, which then flows back down the wire into the circuitry.

Look at the mechanics behind it. You have a birotation in time (imaginary axis) being carried by the progression through space, at the speed of light (adjusted for the medium of air), which we identify as a transverse EM wave.

Now take the conjugate of the system, since the material and cosmic sectors are related as conjugates on the imaginary plane (reciprocal is between time-space and time regions).

Rather than starting with a battery (current) to produce an electrostatic emission, Tesla started with an "electrostatic battery" that would create a current-based emission that Nehru calls the "birotating electron" and conventional science calls the Cooper pair. That's why he had to use a spark gap oscillator. Only charged electrons can cross the gap, so it produces strong electrostatic impulses--an impulse wave, as described in the video. The inductive part of the tank circuit then builds up birotating electrons, where the birotation is in space and the "wave" is in time. (Photon birotation has the birotation in time and the wave in space, per Nehru's articles).

The consequences of this structure is that the birotating electrons have the net motion in time, which means they cannot move through the time of the atom, but CAN move through the equivalent space of the atom. Equivalent space (and it's conjugate, equivalent time) are the "spatial equivalent of time." Motion in time is magnetic and 2-dimensional, therefore equivalent time is also a 2-dimensional region of space. This means that anything traveling through equivalent space (kind of like "subspace") covers the square of the distance that its 1-dimensional, spatial counterpart (linear photon movement in space) would. For the same clock time, the birotational wave covers c2 the distance as the photon wave. This relation was mentioned in a later part of the video. But, since we imply speed from frequency relationships, we'd probably just measure the speed as the 90-degree phase difference between the real and imaginary axes--π/2 c (also mentioned).

Now you're an expert on Tesla technology!
Every dogma has its day...

bperet
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### Quick note on Counterspace

Counterspace is a much simpler concept than what you read on the net. It is just the negative, real axis.

What that means in a universe of motion is that you shifted your car from forward to reverse, and the geometry flipped. In "drive," you go from a point at zero to a plane at infinity. In "reverse," you go from a point at infinity towards a plane at zero. In the material sector, we aways move out from the point and in to the plane.

As a result of this material convention, points and planes get "dualized"--geometrically exchanged. A really simple analogy would be driving a bulldozer with a blade front and rear. Going forward, you leave an empty trail behind you (point) and push up a wall of dirt in front of you (plane). Shift to reverse and head back to where you started, and now the wall of dirt builds up behind you, and the empty trail is the former front.
Every dogma has its day...

Horace
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Joined: Sat Apr 15, 2006 3:40 pm

### Near & Far field emissions

Examine how conventional radio works in the Reciprocal System: EM radiation, namely photons shot out in a pattern around an antenna
And I thought that radio emissions work like this
That's why he had to use a spark gap oscillator. Only charged electrons can cross the gap, so it produces strong electrostatic impulses--an impulse wave, as described in the video.
It never occured to me to treat a spark-gap as a filter to discriminate between charged and uncharged electrons.
Tesla started with an "electrostatic battery" that would create a current-based emission that Nehru calls the "birotating electron" and conventional science calls the Cooper pair
To me, Tesla Coil secondary was always an antenna optimized to have the maximum VSWR possible - the opposite of the unity VSWR that all RF transmitter designers strive for. The oscillations in this Tesla secondary got trapped by reflection from its end and formed a standing wave. The peaks of this wave can build up to a pretty high voltage, which forms beautiful coronas and arcing discharges in air. It always bothered me that these discharges do not seem to form closed circuits, though

Is there any other way to maximize production of these birotating electrons, other than infinite VSWR in a helical antenna?
birotating electrons have the net motion in time, which means they cannot move through the time of the atom, but CAN move through the equivalent space of the atom
And some atoms should have more eqivalent space than others. I wonder which ones? What happens to the resistance of birotating electrons moving through matter?

I am getting confused how many types of electric currents exist:
1. uncharged electrons in conductors,
2. displacement current in capacitors,
3. charged electrons moving in free space,
4. birotating electrons moving in equivalent space of matter.
Also, aren't there stable electron triplets?

bperet
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### More Tesla Tech

And I thought that radio emissions work like this
Well if you like "epicycles..."

I haven't been involved with a HAM radio club since High School in 1973, so I'm a bit out of touch with that field. But it would seem you could derive near, Fresnel and far fields from the discharge of a photon from a charged electron. RF photons are LF (Low Frequency) in the RS, so they are nonlocal and behave like waves to the material observer. Looks very much like the patterns of the 2-slit experiment.
It never occurred to me to treat a spark-gap as a filter to discriminate between charged and uncharged electrons.
Also consider vacuum tubes versus semiconductors. A hot cathode converts current (uncharged) to voltage (charged).
It always bothered me that these discharges do not seem to form closed circuits, though
That is because it is monopolar electricity, what they call "cold electricity" these days, and why Tesla was safe running thousands of volts through his body. So, how can this be?

Consider conventional electricity--charge. What is charge? Simple harmonic motion. Charged electrons are a rotating unit of space, and when it captures a photon, becomes a rotational vibration--still has area and resistance.

Now consider what happens should uncharged electrons enter into a birotation. Using Euler relations, the rotations cancel each other out, and you have a pair of electrons that look and behave like a SHM. Not having any surface area, these paired electrons also do not have any resistance--they superconduct. However, they are only occupying 2 of the 3 available dimensions, so there's room for one more... add another electron to the birotation, and you're back to the rotational vibration, with resistance.

Electrons are not photons, so they cannot add to the thermal motion of an atom--hence "cold electricity" as they do not have any thermal emission--they have uncharged electron emission, which goes unnoticed.

So electron birotations can also have a charged (triplet) and uncharged (pair) state, but since the uncharged birotation superconducts, it has zero resistance and messes up the formula, V = IR, showing zero voltage and infinite current (even though that is not the actual case).

Unlike photons, the electron birotations are HF in nature (spatial), so they are local and observable as particles. When emitted from a conductor, they will break down quickly, discharging conventional electricity in a coronal display. They don't form closed circuits because you're looking at a radiative breakdown, not a conductive path.
Is there any other way to maximize production of these birotating electrons, other than infinite VSWR in a helical antenna?
The geometry of the could would be the trick. Inductance is mass, plain and simple. Just like a crystal, the geometry of the mass determines its properties. When you wind that mass into a coil, it creates capacitance, so every coil is a tank circuit. Additional capacitance is used to adjust the frequency because it is simpler to move plates with respect to each other, than to have to keep trimming wire length. (If you ever built a crystal radio with a slide tuning coil, you know what I mean.)

The design of capacitors tends to break the ability to create birotating electron pairs, so getting the geometry right for a self-resonating coil would be the approach. That's where the tuning of the spark gap comes in.

Depending on application, you'd have to work out the pair/triplet ratio for best performance. Tesla's longitudinal waves favor the superconducting pairs. Lighting up bulbs and stuff would prefer the triplet, as they are resistive loads.

Larson lists the natural unit of a volt as 9.31146x108 volts (1 amu). That voltage, at unit frequency, should give you the best results.
And some atoms should have more equivalent space than others. I wonder which ones?
Equivalent space is a function of temporal displacement, so large magnetic rotation and small electric rotation gives you the most.
What happens to the resistance of birotating electrons moving through matter?
Zero resistance, as they are a SHM (dimensional reduction, as Nehru calls it).
1. uncharged electrons in conductors,
2. displacement current in capacitors,
3. charged electrons moving in free space,
4. birotating electrons moving in equivalent space of matter.
Also, aren't there stable electron triplets?
Displacement current is a misnomer. It's just additive motions, filling up the 3 scalar dimensions:
1. Uncharged electron, 1D, 2 open dimensions.
2. Uncharged electron (1D) + photon (2D) = 3D charged electron, full.
3. CW Uncharged electron (1D) + CCW uncharged electron (1D) = birotating electron (2D), 1 open dimension.
4. Birotating electron pair (2D) + uncharged electron (1D) = charged birotation (triplet), full.
Anything with an open dimension is carried by the progression at the speed of light. Full dimensions behave as particles.

Hope this is making some sense for you!
Every dogma has its day...

Horace
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Joined: Sat Apr 15, 2006 3:40 pm

### Discriminating and measuring the 4 types of electricity

1. Uncharged electron, 1D, 2 open dimensions.
2. Uncharged electron (1D) + photon (2D) = 3D, no open dimensions.
3. CW Uncharged electron (1D) + CCW uncharged electron (1D) = birotating electron (2D), 1 open dimension.
4. Birotating electron pair (2D) + uncharged electron (1D) = charged birotation (triplet), no open dimensions.
This is bothering me too much!

How would you design a meter that would measure and discriminate between these 4 types of electricity?

What happens when these different configurations of electrons are forced to move? What happens to the Biot-Savart's law and Lorentz forces for each of these 4 types of electricity ?

See: http://blazelabs.com/e-exp10.asp

bperet
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### Meters

How would you design a meter that would measure and discriminate between these 4 types of electricity?
Uncharged can be measured as current.

Charged can be measured as voltage, if you know the resistance, since V=IR.

The conventional charged (negative) and uncharged (positive) electrons will produce a magnetic field in the conductor. The birotation and triplet, being superconductive, will expel a magnetic field in a conductor. (See Nehru's article on Superconductivity).

The only difficulty is with R=0, V=IR gets messed up, so the birotation/triplet would probably require electrostatic measurement.

I was watching a thunderstorm the other day, and noticed all the different kinds of lightning:
• The thunderbolt, connects cloud to ground and starts fires.
• The sky-filler, that branches out and covers almost the entire sky like a tree.
• The "inside the cloud" lightning, that illuminates the cloud and you never really see much of a bolt.
• The "between clouds" lightning, that arcs from one cloud to another.
Tesla was fascinated by thunderstorms; I can certainly see why.

If you've played around with static electricity on a cold, winter day, you know what it looks like. It builds up and arcs to a point, from many locations. Static electric discharge appears to be the sky-filler.

The thunderbolt looks like Tesla's stuff, so it's probably the triplet. The breakdown into 3e (current) could fuse and heat the impact point, melting rock and starting fires.

The "inside the cloud" reminds me a lot of sparks from high current in an interrupted circuit.

The "between clouds" you would not expect, as negative should not be attracted to negative, unless it happens to be superconducting electrons.

So for what it's worth, those are my "meters" in Nature.
Every dogma has its day...

Horace
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### Influence of magnetic fields

Bruce,
1. Uncharged electron, 1D, 2 open dimensions.
2. Uncharged electron (1D) + photon (2D) = 3D, no open dimensions.
3. CW Uncharged electron (1D) + CCW uncharged electron (1D) = birotating electron (2D), 1 open dimension.
4. Birotating electron pair (2D) + uncharged electron (1D) = charged birotation (triplet), no open dimensions.
What is the difference in the effect that a static and varying magnetic fields have on these 4 entities ?

I know that the charged electron is deflected by perpendicular magnetic field because CRT work that way and electrons in plasma (matter) are also similarly affected, e.g. in a plasma globe.

Also, I know that a magnetic field affects uncharged electrons in solid matter because of the way Hall efect sensor works.

What about the influence on other entities (motions) ?

Ardavarz
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Joined: Wed Nov 21, 2012 1:59 pm

### Fermion waves?

I wonder if this can be related somehow to Steven J. Smith's model of neutrino as "half integer spin packet of electromagnetic energy".

http://web.archive.org/web/200910271120 ... -ani1.html

http://web.archive.org/web/200910281404 ... -ani2.html

From the preceding animations, it should be obvious that unlike conventional electro-magnetic waves which oscillate in two spatial dimensions while propagating through a third spatial dimension (boson or transverse electro-magnetic waves), the fermion wave must oscillate in all three spatial dimensions simultaneously. Therefore a radically different coupling method (transmitting antenna geometry) is needed to produce the requisite half integer spin (fermion) waveform. (http://www.oocities.org/electrogravitics/tuf3.html)

bperet
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### Charge field effects

What is the difference in the effect that a static and varying magnetic fields have on these 4 entities ?

I know that the charged electron is deflected by perpendicular magnetic field because CRT work that way and electrons in plasma (matter) are also similarly affected, e.g. in a plasma globe.

Also, I know that a magnetic field affects uncharged electrons in solid matter because of the way Hall efect sensor works.

What about the influence on other entities (motions) ?
It is doubtful an external magnetic field can affect the uncharged electron in the time region of an atom. More likely, it is affecting the orientation of the atom, itself (being a magnetic rotation), and the atom is affecting the uncharged electrons passing through it.

The birotation has undergone dimensional reduction and is a wave, so it would be influenced like a photon would via the Zeeman Effect. The charged birotation would look and behave just like a charged electron, as it has the same structure (1D rotational vibration) but is just "larger."
Every dogma has its day...