In The Structure of the Physical Universe, Larson describes the structure of the atom as having a 2-dimensional (a-b) magnetic rotation within the time region, and that region, itself, spins on an axis to form the electric rotation in space (c). There is a problem with this geometry, as "scalar motion" does not have an axis on which to rotate, so if the electric dimension was a scalar rotation, this could not be it. In RS2, this conceptual problem was corrected by making the electric (c) rotation as existing in the space region, the conjugate of the time region, where it could exist as a scalar rotation (no geometry).
When I started developing programming for RS2, I ran into the symmetry problem. If the time region is 3D "magnetic," then the space region must be, too. That resulted in the c-d electric rotation for the model. But the issue remained as to WHY the electric rotation could reach values of ±16, whereas scalar rotation in the time region stopped at 5-4-(1).
I believe I have found the solution to the problem--it has to do with the "unit boundary," in that only the net magnitude of speed can be transmitted across it (no orientation). In RS, that is limited to the pressure of linear motion. In RS2, it is a complex quantity, composed of the linear (real) and the rate of spin (imaginary). That means that anything we measure that is on the other side of a unit boundary will be observed as a complex quantity--not the actual structure that is there.
The double-rotating system of Larson is easily expressed as a quaternion rotation in RS2. A quaternion is 3D, which means that if we were to view a "cosmic quaternion," such as the cosmic magnetic double-rotating system, we would observe it as a complex quantity--a planar rotation with a linear velocity. However, there is a catch... a 3D rotation is measured in steradians, and a full rotation is 720°. When expressed as a complex quantity, that 720° still has to be "filled out," so we get TWICE the speed on this side... 2×360°.
The quaternion, when seen from across a unit boundary, then has twice the magnitude in the complex plane, as in the quaternion rotation. Now consider that the atom is composed of TWO double-rotating systems, with a maximum value of 4-4. That means the complex rotation would have a maximum value of 8-8 or ±16 units.
And when we look at Larson's periodic table, we find the maximum electric displacement is 16 units. In RS2, in the a-b--c-d notation, the maximum speed would then be seen as 4-4--8-8.
When this system is run backwards, where the material, magnetic rotation crosses the unit boundary into the cosmic sector, the same thing happens... all of a sudden, we need TWICE AS MANY magnetic "'units" to explain the interactions. Larson ran across this problem in Basic Properties of Matter, having to break magnetic rotations into half units, which he called the specific rotation.
- c-magnetic rotation is observed as m-electric rotation, with twice as many units as m-magnetic rotation, doubling the maximum magnitude (electric rotation).
- m-magnetic rotation interacts as c-electric rotation, needing twice as many units--but appearing as half-steps, rather than doubling (specific rotation).