So what about the 1D particles, the electron and positron? The electron, being a "rotating unit of space" can be easily explained as the projection of a more complex, cosmic structure, since only the net magnitude of motion can be transmitted across the unit speed boundary (Larson: net linear speed, RS2: linear speed + spin speed). So, the electron can be just a cosmic, quaternion rotation that we

*observe*as a 1D particle (since we cannot directly observe coordinate time).

But what of the positron? Being a temporal displacement like the other atoms, it cannot be a projection. So I started to question of the positron actually existed as an independent particle... well, yes, it "sort of" does.

Positrons are not found in the natural environment ("extremely scarce" is the term). Electrons are abundant. Larson said that positrons are readily absorbed by atomic rotation systems, since time/time is not motion. Makes sense. But where to they come from? Well, there are only TWO known sources of positrons, and both are from something breaking up: gamma ray decay, producing a positron-electron pair, and radioactive decay, as β+ emission.

We don't find them anywhere else in the material system--they are, essentially, a fragment of a broken quaternion.

A quaternion is just a sphere, and a sphere only requires two angles to define it, analogous to the latitude and longitude that we use to locate any spot on Earth. So when it breaks down, that 4D quaternion becomes a pair of 2D particles--a complex complex quantity that we call a "1D" motion, since we only count the rotational operators in these systems (complex=[a,<i>] is 1D, quaternion=[a,<i,j,k>] is 3D).

Now, in the cosmic sector, the opposite is true... positrons are plentiful (as a projection) and electrons are scarce, being only the product of antimatter decay.

This changes the way that electric current may be looked at. Gopi's use of 1D electrons and 2D holes may actually be an entire, 4D system... the c-neutrino being observed as the electron, and the m-neutrino as the 2D hole. This is why they can "flip" so easily between 1D and 2D--it is the environment that changes the

*appearance*, not the particle altering its spin.

Still thinking on this... but it does simplify things a great deal. We exist in a 3D universe, both in a linear and angular form. Everything seeks to become 3D, smaller dimensions combine to build up, higher dimensions break up to build down. Nehru defined this as the zone of dimensional stability. Natural interactions occur to bring things into dimensional balance... after all, Nature likes balance.